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Nanotechnology Now – Press Release: A universal HCl assistant powder-to-powder strategy for preparing lead-free perovskites

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HAAPP strategy Operation diagram;  b Digital photos of samples at each step;  c A description of the mechanism for the HAAPP strategy growth process;  d LaMer model for the description of the crystal growth process;  Digital photo of sample e after adding concentrated HCl and f after shaking for ~5 minutes;  g Comparison of products with UV irradiation (left) and without (right) during synthesis;  Digital photographs of the products obtained by bulk preparation under room light and 365 nm UV light CREDITS by Huanxin Yang, Xiangxiang Chen, Yiyue Chu, Changjiu Sun, Haolin Lu, Mingjian Yuan, Yuhai Zhang, Guankui Long, Libing Zhang and Xiyan Li
HAAPP strategy Operation diagram; b Digital photos of samples at each step; c A description of the mechanism for the HAAPP strategy growth process; d LaMer model for the description of the crystal growth process; Digital photo of sample e after adding concentrated HCl and f after shaking for ~5 minutes; g Comparison of products with UV irradiation (left) and without (right) during synthesis; Digital photographs of the products obtained by bulk preparation under room light and 365 nm UV light CREDITS by Huanxin Yang, Xiangxiang Chen, Yiyue Chu, Changjiu Sun, Haolin Lu, Mingjian Yuan, Yuhai Zhang, Guankui Long, Libing Zhang and Xiyan Li

Abstract:
In recent years, lead-free perovskite materials, represented by Cs2NaInCl6, have achieved a rapid breakthrough of luminous quantum yield from zero to near unity with Ag/Na and In/Bi alloying schemes. Thanks to self-trapping stimuli, Cs2Na1-xAgxIn1-yBiyCl6 usually exhibits eye-friendly luminescence behavior with full coverage of the visible spectrum, thus attracting people’s attention. In addition, the warm white light emission from a single component avoids the problem of light reabsorption between multiple components, which was easy in the previous “blue + yellow” or “blue + green + red” schemes. These outstanding characteristics make lead-free perovskites very useful commercially in scenarios such as LED backlights or LCD white-light backboards.

A universal HCl assistant powder-to-powder strategy for preparing lead-free perovskites

Changchun, China | Posted on March 24, 2023

On the basis of the outstanding quantum luminous yield, it is a prerequisite for commercialization to search for a synthesis strategy which can simultaneously achieve various ideal conditions such as mass production, fast reaction rate, environmental friendliness, low cost and heat or pressure free, etc. Traditional high temperature solid state reactions and hydrothermal methods generally exhibit unsafely high reaction temperatures (or high pressures) and clock scale time costs. In contrast, recrystallization methods based on liquid phase reactions generally show faster nucleation growth. Unfortunately, this is limited by the solubility of raw materials (such as Ag sources, etc.), which can lead to consumption of large amounts of solvent, increasing preparation costs. Therefore, to explore a synthetic strategy that can meet the above requirements is one of the difficult issues to realize the commercialization of lead-free perovskite materials.

In a new paper published in Light: Science & Applications, a team of scientists, led by Prof. Xiyan Li from Nankai University and co-workers have proposed a universal HAAPP strategy for rapid and bulk preparation of lead-free perovskite microcrystals. Interestingly, they ignored solubility and prepared 1 mmol double perovskite microcrystals using only 1–2 mL concentrated HCl. The new HAAPP strategy can achieve the industrialization goals of thermal, stress-free, environmentally friendly, short time, low cost, and high product yield (~90%), simultaneously. Besides Cs2Na1-xAgxIn1-yBiyCl6, the proposed HAAPP strategy can be used to prepare other lead-free perovskites with different structures, such as Cs2ZrCl6, CsMnCl3, Cs4MnBi2Cl12 and Cs2InCl5·H2O, etc. More interestingly, this strategy can be extended even further to Br- or I-based perovskites, such as Cs2AgBiBr6 or Cs3Bi2I9. The HAAPP strategy with wide applicability is expected to provide a reliable reference for the preparation of new materials in the future. These scientists summarize the HAAPP strategy:

“We designed the HAAPP strategy for three goals in one: (1) to provide a rapid mass production scheme for the industrialization of lead-free perovskite materials; (2) provide safe, reliable, and widely supported scientific research methods; (3) to provide a new line of thinking about understanding the mechanisms of conventional hydrothermal and recrystallization methods.”

“In our HAAPP strategy, continuous crystallization accompanies the gradual release of free ions from raw materials with low solubility, driving the chemical equilibrium of the reversible reaction towards free ions continuously until the raw materials are depleted. This unique powder-to-powder transition will provide a new line of thought for understanding the mechanism of conventional recrystallization methods, i.e., complete dissolution of the raw material is apparently not completely necessary.

“Concentrated hydrochloric acid, as the only solvent used, performs multiple functions in our HAAPP strategy, which are summarized as follows:

1) Provide liquid environment for fast reaction;

2) Give poor solubility to products to increase chemical yield;

3) Increase the luminescence efficiency with passive anions;

4) Guide the product growth direction to ensure the pure phase of the product.

The HAAPP strategy proposed in this paper can simultaneously meet the conditions of ideal mass production preparation, fast response, environmental friendliness, low cost, heat and pressure free, etc., which provides an industrialization foundation for the application of lead-free perovskite. in LED lighting or LCD backlight plates. Various ion-doping for light regulation also indicates that the HAAPP strategy is expected to be another new preparation scheme after solid-state, hydrothermal and recrystallization methods. In addition, the induction of the reaction mechanism and the summary of the function of HCl will provide a strong reference for the analysis of specific growth processes by the hydrothermal method.” Scientists predict.

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Contact:
Media Contact

Yaobiao Li
Light Publishing Center, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics And Physics, CAS

Office: 86-431-861-76851
Expert Contact

Xiyan Li
Nankai University, China

Copyright © Light Publishing Center, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics And Physics, CAS

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Publisher of the news release, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, is solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

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