Biotechnology

Carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials: classification and

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Carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials have received a lot of attention because of their versatility, including the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. They work under endogenous (pH, temperature, enzymes, and redox) or exogenous (temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound) stimuli. Carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials can be used as smart materials with physicochemical properties that can be dynamically regulated in response to changes in internal or external environmental stimuli. Their diverse combinations of nanostructures and molecular designs, as well as functional complexes with different carriers, create new opportunities for the development of advanced smart nanomaterials.

Carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials have received a lot of attention because of their versatility, including the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. They work under endogenous (pH, temperature, enzymes, and redox) or exogenous (temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound) stimuli. Carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials can be used as smart materials with physicochemical properties that can be dynamically regulated in response to changes in internal or external environmental stimuli. Their diverse combinations of nanostructures and molecular designs, as well as functional complexes with different carriers, create new opportunities for the development of advanced smart nanomaterials.

A research team from the Beijing Institute of Technology reviewed the classification and application of carbon-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials, based on their microstructure and properties, and discussed the applications of carbon-based stimulation-responsive nanomaterials in investigations, bioimaging, tumor therapy, and other fields. Finally, they analyze and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of carbon-based stimulation-responsive nanomaterials and provide views on their application prospects.

They published their recommendations at Cyborg Systems and Bionicson March 9th.

The authors classify carbon-based nanomaterials into 3 main categories: carbon nanotubes, carbon nanospheres, and carbon nanofibers. At the same time, several carbon-based stimulation-responsive nanomaterials involved in research are at the forefront of science and engineering listed, and more specific differences are reflected in the synthesis and preparation methods of various carbon nanomaterials.

Then, the authors list the applications of carbon-based stimulus-responsive materials in the fields of probe, bioimaging, and tumor therapy. Carbon-based nanomaterials are used in anti-counterfeiting and optical imaging applications due to their unique optical properties. Conjugation with different target detection reagents can increase the sensitivity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Carbon-based nanomaterials can also be used as drug delivery carriers or therapeutic reagents (photothermal, photodynamic, chemotherapeutic, etc.) for disease treatment.

Finally, the authors discuss the limitations of developing carbon-based stimulus-responsive materials and future perspectives. Carbon-based excitability responsive materials not only have excellent physical and chemical properties, but also can be combined with other polymers for functionalization, and become excellent carriers for drug delivery and cancer treatment. Currently, the safety of carbon-based stimulation-responsive materials is unknown due to a lack of key evidence in medical clinical trials. In order to further reduce the controversy of carbon-based stimulus-responsive materials and increase credibility, it is necessary to carry out in-depth studies of toxicology, pathology, and biodynamics.

This review summarizes the classification of carbon-based stimulus-responsive materials and their applications in the fields of biology and chemistry, and discusses the existing defects and their future developments. In general, many studies have demonstrated that carbon-based stimulus-responsive materials play an important role in the biomedical field through hybridization. However, to further reduce the controversy and increase its credibility, it is necessary to carry out in-depth studies of toxicology and pathology. In the future, researchers are expected to develop new synthetic methods or create new composite materials to enhance the safety of carbon-based stimulus responsive materials and make them more beneficial to human life.


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